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Eurovision Voting Patterns Analysed Your Open Plan Office Can Make You Ill! Could a Chess Robot Cause Judgement Day? Can Software Suffer? The Complicated Ethics of Brain Emulation A New High Entropy Alloy Surviving a Global Zombie Attack Tablet Use Increases Neck Strain Could Invisibility Become a Reality? Online Gaming: How to Beat the Cheats Analysing the Foot Strike Pattern of a World Class Athlete Imaginary Public a Threat to Synthetic Biology Sauna, Sweat and Science Evolving Opportunities for Providing Thermal Comfort Hard Knocks and High Heels

Given the density of the intergovernmental dynamics that shape the country’s immigration policy, it is imperative to develop a comprehensive strategy for immigration federalism. State and local involvement in immigration policy are varied but fall into two basic categories: 1) enforcement federalism, which concerns the extent to which localities should assist or resist federal removal policies, and 2) integration federalism, which encompasses measures designed to assist immigrants, regardless of status, to integrate in the United States. This essay offers four basic principles to frame any future federalism agenda on immigration. ...

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Emily Ryo

This paper examines the importance of applying a subject-centered approach to understanding immigration noncompliance and to developing effective, ethical, and equitable immigration policies. In general, a subject-centered approach focuses on the beliefs, values, and perceptions of individuals whose behavior the law seeks to regulate. This approach has been widely used in non-immigration law contexts to produce a more nuanced understanding of legal noncompliance. By contrast, the subject-centered approach has been an overlooked tool in the study of immigration noncompliance. This paper argues that a subject-centered understanding of why people obey or disobey the law can advance public knowledge and inform immigration policy in important ways. Specifically, the paper considers how the use of this approach might help us: (1) recognize the basic humanity and moral agency of unauthorized immigrants, (2) appreciate not only direct costs of immigration enforcement policies, but also their indirect and long-term costs, and (3) develop new and innovative strategies to achieving policy goals....

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Todd Scribner

This paper analyzes the restrictionist logic that informs the Trump administration’s handling of immigration policy, and explores some of the underlying cultural, philosophical, and political conditions that inspired support for Trump. It contends that the Clash of Civilizations (CoC) paradigm is a useful lens to help understand the positions that President Trump has taken with respect to international affairs broadly, and specifically in his approach to immigration policy. The paper will focus primarily on Trump’s approach to refugee resettlement during his campaign and the early days of his administration. While there are unique aspects of the contemporary reaction against refugee resettlement, it is rooted in a much longer history that extends back to the World War II period. The paper explores this historical backdrop, and helps to clarify the reception of refugees after the fall of the Soviet Union. It also helps to explain how and why a CoC paradigm has become ascendant in the Trump administration. The CoC paradigm is at its core pre-political, and the policy prescriptions that follow from it are more effect than cause. The paper concludes with a series of recommendations for restoring support to the US refugee resettlement program, bolstering foreign aid and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (which are essential to the program’s success), and engaging the cultural underpinnings of opposition to this program. ...

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Peter J. Spiro

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Specification Document - 4 November 2009

Copyright © 2008-2013 by Structured Dynamics LLC.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License . This copyright applies to the Bibliographic Ontology Specification and accompanying documentation and does not apply to Bibliographic Ontology data formats, ontology terms, or technology. Regarding underlying technology, Bibliographic Ontology relies heavily on W3C's technology, an open Web standard that can be freely used by anyone.


The Bibliographic Ontology Specification provides main concepts and properties for describing citations and bibliographic references (i.e. quotes, books, articles, etc) on the Semantic Web.

NOTE: This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document.

This specification is an evolving document. This document is generated by a machine-readable Bibliographic Ontology expressed in RDF/XML with a specification template.

Authors welcome suggestions on the Bibliographic Ontology and this document. This document may be updated or added to based on implementation experience, but no commitment is made by the authors regarding future updates.

The Bibliographic Ontology describe bibliographic things on the semantic Web in RDF. This ontology can be used as a citation ontology, as a document classification ontology, or simply as a way to describe any kind of document in RDF. It has been inspired by many existing document description metadata formats, and can be used as a common ground for converting other bibliographic data sources.

Namespace URIs of the general form "" represents some application-dependent or context-dependent URI as defined in RFC 2396 [ RFC 2396 ].

The XML Namespace URI that MUST be used by implementations of this specification is:

The Bibliographic Ontology is an effort of Frédércick Giasson and Bruce D'Arcus to express citations and bibliographic relations using and to query that same information using the SPARQL query language for RDF .

The specific contents of the Bibliographic Ontology are detailed in the Bibliographic Ontology namespace document .

This specification serves as the Bibliographic Ontology "namespace document". As such it describes the Bibliographic Ontology and the terms ( classes and properties) that constitute it, so that Semantic Web applications can use those terms in a variety of RDF-compatible document formats and applications.

This document presents the Bibliographic Ontology as a Semantic Web vocabulary or Ontology . The Bibliographic Ontology is straightforward, pragmatic and designed to allow simultaneous deployment and extension, and is therefore intended for widescale use.

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